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生物降解材料的四大类及其优缺点

生物降解材料的四大类及其优缺点

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2022-07-14 16:34:00    

有哪些可生物降解的材料?

What biodegradable materials are there?
目前主要分为聚乳酸(PLA)、聚乳酸酯(Phat)和聚乳酸酯(PBAT)四大类。
At present, it is mainly divided into four categories: polylactic acid (PLA), polylactic acid ester (Phat) and polylactic acid ester (PBAT).
聚乳酸:是以乳酸为主要原料聚合而成的常见的可降解塑料之一。聚乳酸的生产过程污染,产品可生物降解。废旧聚乳酸经55℃以上堆肥或富氧和微生物作用,可分解为二氧化碳和水,实现自然界物质循环,对环境无任何影响。目前生产聚乳酸主要采用丙交酯开环聚合工艺。首先将乳酸脱水生成低聚物,然后解聚生成丙交酯,再进行开环聚合生成聚乳酸。聚乳酸还具有可靠的生物安全性、生物降解性、良好的力学性能和易加工性,广泛应用于包装、纺织、农用塑料薄膜和生物医用高分子等行业。PLA的缺点是降解条件相对苛刻。然而,由于聚乳酸在生物可降解塑料中的成本相对较低,聚乳酸的消费量处于前列。
Polylactic acid: it is one of the common degradable plastics polymerized with lactic acid as the main raw material. The production process of polylactic acid is polluted, and the product can be biodegradable. Waste polylactic acid can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by composting at above 55 ℃ or oxygen enrichment and microbial action, realizing the material circulation in nature and having no impact on the environment. At present, the ring opening polymerization process of lactide is mainly used in the production of polylactic acid. First, lactic acid is dehydrated to produce oligomers, then depolymerized to produce lactide, and then ring opening polymerization to produce polylactic acid. Polylactic acid also has reliable biosafety, biodegradability, good mechanical properties and easy processing. It is widely used in packaging, textile, agricultural plastic film, biomedical polymer and other industries. The disadvantage of PLA is that the degradation conditions are relatively harsh. However, due to the relatively low cost of polylactic acid in biodegradable plastics, the consumption of polylactic acid is in the forefront.
PBS:由丁二酸和1,4-丁二醇缩聚而成,原料为石油或生物资源发酵。PBS在自然界中易被多种微生物或酶分解为二氧化碳和水,具有良好的生物相容性、生物吸收性和耐热性。PBS可用于包装膜、餐具、泡沫包装材料、日用瓶、药瓶、农膜、农药肥料缓释材料等领域。由于我国丁二酸原料有限,PBS衍生物PBAT和PBSA的生产符合要求。其性能与PBS基本相似,但加工性能不如PBS。
PBS: it is formed by polycondensation of succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol, and the raw material is petroleum or biological resources fermentation. PBS is easily decomposed into carbon dioxide and water by a variety of microorganisms or enzymes in nature, and has good biocompatibility, bioabsorption and heat resistance. PBS can be used in packaging film, tableware, foam packaging materials, daily bottles, medicine bottles, agricultural film, pesticide and fertilizer slow-release materials and other fields. Due to the limited raw materials of succinic acid in China, the production of PBS derivatives PBAT and PBSA meets the requirements. Its performance is basically similar to PBS, but its processing performance is not as good as PBS.
PBAT:是一种热塑性可降解塑料。通常由脂肪酸和丁二醇通过石化或生物发酵生产。它具有良好的延展性和断裂伸长率,以及良好的耐热性和冲击性能。PBAT具有成膜性能好、吹膜方便等优点,广泛应用于一次性包装薄膜和农用薄膜领域。另外,PBAT具有优良的生物降解性能,是降解塑料研究和市场应用中跃的降解材料之一。
PBAT: it is a kind of thermoplastic degradable plastic. It is usually produced by fatty acids and butanediol through petrochemical or biological fermentation. It has good ductility and elongation at break, as well as good heat resistance and impact properties. PBAT has the advantages of good film-forming performance and convenient film blowing, and is widely used in the field of disposable packaging film and agricultural film. In addition, PBAT has excellent biodegradability and is one of the most promising degradable materials in the research and market application of degradable plastics.
PHA:PHA可降解塑料包括聚羟基脂肪酸酯(PHA)、聚3羟基丁酸酯(PHB)等类别。PHA的降解方式非常特殊。PHA使用后可在生物体内完全降解为β-羟丁酸、二氧化碳和水。热塑性和热塑性较差,但热塑性加工温度不稳定。可用于一次性产品、医疗器械用手术服、包装袋和堆肥袋、医用缝合线、修复装置、绷带、矫形针、防粘连膜和支架。
PHA: PHA degradable plastics include polyhydroxyfatty acid esters (PHA), poly3 hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and other categories. The degradation mode of PHA is very special. PHA can be completely degraded into β- Hydroxybutyric acid, carbon dioxide and water. Thermoplastic and thermoplastic are poor, but the temperature of thermoplastic processing is unstable. It can be used for disposable products, surgical clothes for medical devices, packaging bags and composting bags, medical sutures, repair devices, bandages, orthopedic needles, anti adhesion films and supports.
看看它们的优缺点
Look at their advantages and disadvantages
可降解材料在性能、实用性、可降解性和安全性等方面都有其优势。在性能方面,可降解塑料在某些特定领域可以达到或超过传统塑料的性能;在实用性方面,可降解塑料与类似的传统塑料具有相似的应用性能和卫生性能;在可降解性方面,可降解塑料可以快速降解可降解塑料在使用后的自然环境(特定微生物、温度和湿度)中,在安全性方面容易受到环境的青睐,降解过程中产生或残留的物质对环境无害,不会影响人类和其他有机体的生存。
Degradable materials have their advantages in performance, practicality, degradability and safety. In terms of performance, degradable plastics can reach or exceed the performance of traditional plastics in some specific fields; In terms of practicality, degradable plastics have similar application and sanitary properties with similar traditional plastics; In terms of degradability, degradable plastics can degrade rapidly. Degradable plastics are easy to be favored by the environment in terms of safety in the natural environment (specific microorganisms, temperature and humidity) after use. Substances produced or residual in the degradation process are harmless to the environment and will not affect the survival of human beings and other organisms.
缺点:目前替代传统塑料的大障碍是其生产成本高于同类传统塑料或再生塑料。因此,在包装、农膜等使用时间短、回收分离困难、性能要求低、杂质含量要求高的应用中,可降解塑料具有更多的优势。
Disadvantages: at present, the major obstacle to replacing traditional plastics is that its production cost is higher than that of similar traditional plastics or recycled plastics. Therefore, degradable plastics have more advantages in applications such as packaging, agricultural film and so on, which have short service time, difficult recovery and separation, low performance requirements and high impurity content requirements.
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