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塑料的生物降解是什么意思?

塑料的生物降解是什么意思?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2022-03-31 08:56:16    

生物降解主要是指厌氧微生物利用聚合物作为生长的碳源将聚合材料转化为沼气和生物质。许多复杂的合成化合物都是由微生物菌群而不是单个菌株进行生物降解的,因此,可以假设,塑料废物可以通过微生物组合去降解。在一个微生物菌落中起作用的微生物可以通过直接参与生物降解或去除潜在的毒性中间体,也可以通过代谢交叉喂养或产生诱导共代谢的降解代谢物来间接提高生物降解。生物降解总体有四个基本阶段:定殖、生物碎片化、同化和矿化。

Biodegradation mainly refers to that anaerobic microorganisms use polymers as carbon sources to convert polymeric materials into biogas and biomass. Many complex synthetic compounds are biodegradable by microbial flora rather than a single strain. Therefore, it can be assumed that plastic waste can be degraded by microbial combination. Microorganisms that play a role in a microbial colony can indirectly improve biodegradation by directly participating in biodegradation or removing potentially toxic intermediates, or by metabolizing cross feeding or producing degradation metabolites that induce co metabolism. There are four basic stages of biodegradation: colonization, biological fragmentation, assimilation and mineralization.
细菌菌株可以降解受污染的水或土壤中的塑料聚合物物质。特殊细菌的塑料生物降解可能是受污染生态系统的一种潜在的生物修复策略。假单胞杆菌、芽孢杆菌和链霉菌等菌株对各种塑料聚合物表现出较高的降解效率。虽然真菌的塑料降解率超过了细菌,但与需要更稳定条件的真菌相比,细菌更容易生长和降解聚合物材料。
Bacterial strains can degrade plastic polymers in contaminated water or soil. Plastic biodegradation by special bacteria may be a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted ecosystems. Pseudomonas, bacillus and Streptomyces showed high degradation efficiency to various plastic polymers. Although the plastic degradation rate of fungi is higher than that of bacteria, bacteria are easier to grow and degrade polymer materials than fungi requiring more stable conditions.
真菌在聚合物材料的降解中起着关键作用。真菌菌丝可以更好地穿透聚合物材料表面,深入基团内部,以降解该底物的结构。真菌菌丝可以分泌细胞外酶(如解聚酶)并分解聚合物底物转化成低聚物、二聚体和单体,这些单体随后被真菌吸收,或被其细胞内酶系统同化或矿化。
Fungi play a key role in the degradation of polymer materials. Fungal hyphae can better penetrate the surface of polymer materials and go deep into the interior of groups to degrade the structure of the substrate. Fungal hyphae can secrete extracellular enzymes (such as depolymerizing enzymes) and decompose polymer substrates into oligomers, dimers and monomers, which are then absorbed by fungi or assimilated or mineralized by their intracellular enzyme systems.
3. 藻类
3. Algae
目前,只有少数研究报道了藻类物种减轻白色污染的能力。值得注意的一点是,丝状藻类在塑料废物表面有定居的能力,但受环境因素如阳光、营养物质和水影响。此外,一些生产孢子细菌和真菌物种,并不能很好地适应大多数塑料废物积累的海洋栖息地。
At present, only a few studies have reported the ability of algal species to reduce white pollution. It is worth noting that filamentous algae have the ability to settle on the surface of plastic waste, but are affected by environmental factors such as sunlight, nutrients and water. In addition, some spore producing bacterial and fungal species are not well adapted to the marine habitats where most plastic waste accumulates.
藻类通过附着在塑料表面产生胞外多糖和木质素溶解酶开始降解过程。微藻可以通过改造成为微生物细胞工厂,产生和分泌聚合物降解酶。微藻废水处理工艺是非常有前途的先进的废水处理和养分回收技术之一。微藻可以将废水中的营养物质去除到非常低的水平,可满足日益严格的排放和再利用标准。由于许多污染物被微藻同化,废水的处理成本大大降低。微藻可以生活在废水中提供的水和营养物质上,不需要补充水和营养物质,因此微藻废水处理有可能降低与化石肥料相关的生产成本和温室气体排放。
Algae begin the degradation process by attaching to the plastic surface to produce extracellular polysaccharides and lignin dissolving enzymes. Microalgae can be transformed into microbial cell factories to produce and secrete polymer degrading enzymes. Microalgae wastewater treatment process is one of the most promising advanced wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery technologies. Microalgae can remove the nutrients in wastewater to a very low level, which can meet the increasingly stringent discharge and reuse standards. Because many pollutants are assimilated by microalgae, the cost of wastewater treatment is greatly reduced. Microalgae can live on the water and nutrients provided in wastewater without supplementary water and nutrients. Therefore, microalgae wastewater treatment may reduce the production costs and greenhouse gas emissions related to fossil fertilizers.