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生物降解的性能有哪些你知道吗?

生物降解的性能有哪些你知道吗?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2022-03-11 20:38:29    

降解性能及其评价;对生物降解材料的降解性能的测试目前还没有制订统一的标准,可采用包括被美国材料试验标准(ASTM)采纳或准备采纳的方法作为标准的方法,通过生物化学和微生物的实验手段来评价的主要方法有下列几种。

Degradation performance and its evaluation; At present, there is no unified standard for the test of the degradation performance of biodegradable materials. The methods adopted or prepared to be adopted by the American material test standard (ASTM) can be used as the standard methods. The main methods evaluated by biochemical and microbial experimental methods are as follows.
土埋法;土埋法有室外土埋法和室内土埋法两种,其微生物源主要是土壤中的微生物群,经一定时间后,取出试样测定其失重、机械性能变化,或用电子显微镜确定其被土壤中微生物侵袭的状况。优点是能反映出自然环境条件下的生物降解性能;缺点是试验周期长,试验结果因土质不同而不同,重复性差。
Soil burial method; There are two kinds of soil burial methods: outdoor soil burial method and indoor soil burial method. Its microbial source is mainly the microbiota in the soil. After a certain time, take out the sample to determine its weight loss and mechanical property changes, or determine its invasion by microorganisms in the soil by electron microscope. The advantage is that it can reflect the biodegradability under natural environmental conditions; The disadvantage is that the test period is different and the test results are poor due to different soil properties.
陪替氏培养器定量法;在容器中加入试验样品和营养琼脂,接种微生物进行培养,经一定时间后,分析试样的失重情况以及某些物理变化或化学变化。优点是可快速降解,在短时间内获得试验结果,重复性好,定量性好;缺点是不能反映自然界中的实际情况。
Quantitative method of Petri dish incubator; Add the test sample and nutrient agar into the container, inoculate microorganisms for culture, and analyze the weight loss and some physical or chemical changes of the sample after a certain period of time. It has the advantages of rapid degradation, obtaining test results in a short time, good repeatability and good quantification; The disadvantage is that it can not reflect the actual situation in nature.
酶分析法;在容器中加入缓冲液和试验样品,让酶作用一定的时间后,分析试样的失重情况,目测霉菌的生长情况,显微镜分析试样物理性能或化学性能的变化。优点是试验周期短,重复性好,定量性好;缺点是不能反映自然界中的实际情况。
Enzyme analysis; Add buffer solution and test sample into the container and allow the enzyme to act for a certain time, analyze the weight loss of the sample, visually observe the growth of mold, and analyze the changes of physical or chemical properties of the sample with microscope. The advantages are short test cycle, good repeatability and good quantification; The disadvantage is that it can not reflect the actual situation in nature.
放射性C14示踪法;用C14标记聚合物产品,在微生物的作用下产生CO2,用碱性溶液吸收,用滴定法测出CO2总量,再用放射性衰减率法测定C14的CO2量,用C14的CO2占产生的CO2的百分数表示微生物侵蚀的程度。优点是实验结果可靠、明确。生物降解性能的测试可以检测样品生物降解性能的优劣。
Radioactive C14 tracer method; The polymer product is labeled with C14 to produce CO2 under the action of microorganisms, absorbed with alkaline solution, the total amount of CO2 is measured by titration, and then the amount of CO2 of C14 is measured by radioactive decay rate method. The degree of microbial erosion is expressed by the percentage of CO2 of C14 in the generated CO2. The advantage is that the experimental results are reliable and clear. The test of biodegradability can detect the biodegradability of samples.
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