欢迎光临安徽鑫科生物环保有限公司官方网站!

可降解材料的原料有哪些?

可降解材料的原料有哪些?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2022-01-07 16:35:55    

可降解塑料是指一类其制品的各项性能可满足使用要求,在保存期内性能不变,而使用后在自然环境条件下能降解成对环境无害的物质的塑料。通过优化选择生产原料和制作工艺,可降解塑料在数天或几个月的日晒雨淋及微生物的共同作用下,能逐步降解成碎片,然后全部降解。可降解材料一般可分为光降解塑料、生物降解塑料、光-生物降解塑料和水降解塑料等四大类。在全球“禁塑”,环保意识增强的形势下,被视为传统一次性塑料的替代品。

Degradable plastics refer to a kind of plastics whose properties can meet the use requirements, remain unchanged during the storage period, and can degrade into environmentally harmless substances under natural environmental conditions after use. By optimizing the production raw materials and production process, degradable plastics can be gradually degraded into fragments and then all degraded under the combined action of sun, rain and microorganisms for days or months. Degradable materials can be generally divided into four categories: photodegradable plastics, biodegradable plastics, photodegradable plastics and water degradable plastics. Under the situation of global "plastic ban" and enhanced environmental awareness, it is regarded as a substitute for traditional disposable plastics.
根据可降解塑料的性质,其下游应用包括农林渔业、包装业、体育用品、卫生用品等领域。可降解塑料在农林渔业的应用包括地膜,保水材料,育苗钵,苗床,绳网,农药和农肥缓释材料等;可降解塑料在包装业的应用包括购物袋,垃圾袋,堆肥袋,一次性餐盒,方便面碗,缓冲包装材料等;可降解塑料在体育用品的应用包括高尔夫球场球钉和球座等;可降解塑料在卫生用品的应用包括妇女卫生用品,婴儿尿布,医用褥垫,一次性胡刀等。
According to the properties of degradable plastics, its downstream applications include agriculture, forestry and fishery, packaging industry, sporting goods, sanitary products and other fields. The application of degradable plastics in agriculture, forestry and fishery includes plastic film, water retaining materials, seedling bowl, seedling bed, rope net, pesticide and agricultural fertilizer slow-release materials, etc; The application of degradable plastics in packaging industry includes shopping bags, garbage bags, composting bags, disposable lunch boxes, instant noodle bowls, cushioning packaging materials, etc; The application of degradable plastics in sporting goods includes golf course, ball nail and tee, etc; The application of degradable plastics in sanitary products includes women's sanitary products, baby diapers, medical mattresses, disposable razors, etc.
可降解塑料比传统高分子塑料更容易被自然环境降解,具有实用性、降解性。可降解塑料即便意外进入自然环境,也不至于产生大的危害,并且可以间接有助于收集更多的废物,同时降低废物对塑料废物机械回收的影响。按照降解方式分类,可降解材料一般可分为光降解塑料、生物降解塑料、光-生物降解塑料和水降解塑料等四大类。
Degradable plastics are more easily degraded by the natural environment than traditional polymer plastics, which is practical and degradable. Degradable plastics will not cause great harm even if they accidentally enter the natural environment, and can indirectly help to collect more waste and reduce the impact of waste on the mechanical recovery of plastic waste. According to the classification of degradation methods, degradable materials can generally be divided into four categories: photodegradable plastics, biodegradable plastics, photodegradable plastics and water degradable plastics.
这些可降解材料的定义分别为:
These degradable materials are defined as:
(1)光降解塑料指被光照射后能发生降解的塑料。制品一旦埋入土中,失去光照,降解过程则停止。
(1) Photodegradable plastics refer to plastics that can degrade after being irradiated by light. Once the product is buried in the soil and loses light, the degradation process stops.
(2)生物降解塑料是由自然界存在的微生物如霉菌和藻类的作用而引起降解的塑料。
(2) Biodegradable plastics are degradable plastics caused by the action of microorganisms such as molds and algae in nature.
(3)水降解塑料在塑料中添加吸水性物质,用完后弃于水中即能溶解掉。
(3) Water degradable plastics add water absorbent substances to plastics, which can be dissolved when discarded in water.
(4)光-生物降解塑料是一种比较理想的降解塑料,是对光降解塑料的光降解机理以及生物降解塑料的生物降解机理的结合应用。
(4) Photodegradable plastics is a kind of ideal degradable plastics. It is a combination of photodegradation mechanism of photodegradable plastics and biodegradation mechanism of biodegradable plastics.
与生物降解塑料相比,其他三类生物降解材料还未成为主流产品。光降解塑料属于较早的一代可降解材料,是掺在塑料中,在太阳光照射作用下,塑料逐渐降解。但其缺点是,降解时间受到太阳光和气候环境的影响,因此无法控制降解时间。水降解塑料方面,适用于水处理的可降解材料不多,且大多耐水性差、在水中强度不高,不能满足日常使用的需要。在水降解材料普及适用前,还有诸多问题需要解决,且水降解塑料材料成本过高,导致了产品较高的价格,对其使用推广造成了一定阻碍。
Compared with biodegradable plastics, the other three types of biodegradable materials have not become mainstream products. Photodegradable plastics belong to the earlier generation of degradable materials. They are mixed in plastics. Under the action of sunlight, plastics degrade gradually. However, its disadvantage is that the degradation time is affected by sunlight and climate environment, so it is impossible to control the degradation time. In terms of water degradable plastics, there are few degradable materials suitable for water treatment, and most of them have poor water resistance and low strength in water, which can not meet the needs of daily use. Before the popularization and application of water degradable materials, there are still many problems to be solved, and the high cost of water degradable plastic materials leads to the high price of products, which hinders its use and promotion.
光/生物降解塑料是光降解和微生物相结合的一类塑料,克服了光降解塑料对光的要求,但对应产品制备难度较高,在我国仍然还是一项较为困难的研究课题之一,相应的产品较少。因此,在目前的可降解塑料行业中,为生物降解塑料是可降解塑料领域的主流产品,也是未来研发生产的热点。按照原料来源,塑料可分为石油基和生物基。按照能否降解,塑料可分为不可生物降解和可生物降解。
Photodegradable plastics are a kind of plastics combining photodegradation and microorganisms, which overcomes the requirements of Photodegradable Plastics for light, but the preparation of corresponding products is difficult. It is still one of the more difficult research topics in China, and there are few corresponding products. Therefore, in the current degradable plastics industry, biodegradable plastics are not only the mainstream products in the field of degradable plastics, but also the focus of R & D and production in the future. According to the source of raw materials, plastics can be divided into petroleum based and bio based. According to whether it can be degraded, plastics can be divided into non biodegradable and biodegradable.
本文由可降解颗粒为您提供,我们的网站是:https://www.swjjkl.com我们将以全心全意的热情为您提供服务,欢迎您的访问!
This article is provided to you by degradable particles. Our website is: https://www.swjjkl.com We will serve you with wholehearted enthusiasm. Welcome to visit!