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可降解颗粒是怎么降解的?

可降解颗粒是怎么降解的?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2021-11-15 09:59:58    

常被提起的材料降解一般有两种方式,光氧降解和生物降解。鉴于光氧降解目前争议很大),本文着重探讨生物降解。

There are generally two ways of material degradation, photooxidative degradation and biodegradation. In view of the great controversy of photo oxidative degradation, this paper focuses on biodegradation.
光氧降解(oxo-degradable)一般通过在传统化石基塑料中加入添加剂,使其在有氧、光照或高温下加速碎裂。虽然光氧降解塑料一般在几个月或几年内就可以碎片化,甚至碎化到肉眼不可见的程度,但碎裂的塑料残留在环境中会逐渐变成微塑料(通常指粒径小于5毫米的塑料微粒)。目前还没有证据证明微塑料可以在短时间内完全降解,因此,光氧降解争议重重,有很大的 “洗绿” 嫌疑。
Photo oxidative degradation (oxo degradable) generally accelerates the fragmentation of traditional fossil based plastics under oxygen, light or high temperature by adding additives. Although photo oxidative degradable plastics can be fragmented or even invisible to the naked eye within a few months or years, the fragmented plastics will gradually become micro plastics (usually plastic particles with particle size less than 5mm) in the environment. At present, there is no evidence that micro plastics can be completely degraded in a short time. Therefore, photo oxygen degradation is controversial and suspected of "washing green".
可降解颗粒
此外,光氧降解塑料在实际中并不耐用,且在用后既不能被回收再生,也不能被堆肥,反而对两种处理方式都会造成干扰——降低再生塑料性能,污染堆肥产物。全球各大品牌(例如联合利华、百事可乐)、研究机构和公益机构目前都在倡议禁止这种塑料的生产 ,直到有证据证明其在短时间内可以完全降解 。
In addition, photo oxidative degradable plastics are not durable in practice, and can neither be recycled nor composted after use. On the contrary, they will interfere with both treatment methods - reduce the performance of recycled plastics and pollute compost products. Major brands around the world (such as Unilever, Pepsi Cola), research institutions and public welfare institutions are now proposing to ban the production of this plastic until there is evidence that it can be completely degraded in a short time.
物降解,指材料在特定环境下,通过微生物作用,完全转化成二氧化碳和水。可以将聚酯短链变成二氧化碳的微生物包括细菌、真菌和原生生物, 它们分泌的一种酶可将聚酯键分解 。
Biodegradation refers to the complete conversion of materials into carbon dioxide and water through microbial action in a specific environment. Microorganisms that can turn polyester short chains into carbon dioxide include bacteria, fungi and protozoa. An enzyme secreted by them can decompose polyester bonds.
生物基塑料常以木薯、玉米和甘蔗等作为原料 。需要明确的是,并不是所有生物基塑料都可生物降解,比如,在巴西以甘蔗为原料大规模生产的bio-PE就不可降解 [4]。而化石基塑料大部分都不可生物降解。当然,也存在例外,比如聚己内酯(PCL)、聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)和己二酸丁二醇酯和对苯二甲酸丁二醇酯的共聚物(PBAT)。
Bio based plastics often use cassava, corn and sugarcane as raw materials. It should be clear that not all bio based plastics are biodegradable. For example, bio PE produced on a large scale with sugarcane as raw material in Brazil is not biodegradable [4]. Most fossil based plastics are not biodegradable. Of course, there are exceptions, such as polycaprolactone (PCL), polybutylene succinate (PBS) and the copolymer of butylene adipate and butylene terephthalate (PBAT).
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