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生物降解颗粒的分类是如何做的?

生物降解颗粒的分类是如何做的?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2021-07-16 15:58:16    

生物降解颗粒是指一类由自然界存在的微生物如细菌、霉菌(真菌)和藻类的作用而引起降解的塑料。理想的生物降解塑料是一种具有优良的使用性能、废弃后可被环境微生物完全分解、被无机化而成为自然界中碳素循环的一个组成部分的高分子材料。“纸”是一种典型的生物降解材料,而“合成塑料”则是典型的高分子材料。因此,生物降解塑料是兼有“纸”和“合成塑料”这两种材料性质的高分子材料。

Biodegradable particles are a kind of plastics that are degraded by natural microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. The ideal biodegradable plastic is a kind of polymer material with excellent performance, which can be completely decomposed by environmental microorganisms after being discarded and become an integral part of carbon cycle in nature“ "Paper" is a typical biodegradable material, while "synthetic plastics" is a typical polymer material. Therefore, biodegradable plastics are polymer materials with the properties of "paper" and "synthetic plastics".
生物降解颗粒又称生物分解塑料,指在自然界如土壤和/或沙土等条件下,和/或特定条件如堆肥化条件下或厌氧消化条件下或水性培养液中,由自然界存在的微生物作用引起降解,并完全降解变成二氧化碳(CO₂)或/和甲烷(CH₄)、水(H₂O)及其所含元素的矿化无机盐以及新的生物质的塑料。
Biodegradable particles, also known as biodegradable plastics, refers to the degradation caused by microorganisms in nature under natural conditions, such as soil and / or sandy soil, and / or specific conditions, such as composting, anaerobic digestion or water-based culture medium, and completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO Ψ) or / and methane (CH ₄) Water, mineralized inorganic salts of its elements and plastics of new biomass.
按原料成分来源分类,生物降解塑料可分为生物基生物降解塑料及石化基生物降解塑料两类。
According to the source of raw materials, biodegradable plastics can be divided into bio based biodegradable plastics and petrochemical based biodegradable plastics.
生物基生物降解塑料主要可分为四类:一类为天然材料直接加工得到的塑料;第二类为微生物发酵和化学合成共同参与得到的聚合物;第三类为由微生物直接合成的聚合物;第四类为以上这些材料共混加工得到的或这些材料和其他化学合成的生物降解塑料共混加工得到的生物降解塑料。
Bio based biodegradable plastics can be divided into four categories: one is directly processed from natural materials; The second is the polymer obtained by microbial fermentation and chemical synthesis; The third is the polymer synthesized directly by microorganism; The fourth category is biodegradable plastics obtained by blending these materials or by blending these materials with other chemically synthesized biodegradable plastics.
石化基生物降解塑料是指以化学合成的方法将石化产品单体聚合而得的塑料,如PBAT、聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)、二氧化碳共聚物(PPC)等。
Petrochemical based biodegradable plastics refer to the plastics obtained by chemical synthesis of monomers of petrochemical products, such as PBAT, PBS, PPC, etc.
按生物降解过程分类,生物降解塑料可分为完全生物降解塑料和破坏性生物降解塑料两种。破坏性生物降解塑料当前主要包括淀粉改性(或填充)聚乙烯PE、聚丙烯PP、聚氯乙烯PVC、聚苯乙烯PS等。
According to the classification of biodegradation process, biodegradable plastics can be divided into completely biodegradable plastics and destructive biodegradable plastics. At present, destructive biodegradable plastics mainly include starch modified (or filled) PE, PP, PVC, PS, etc.
完全生物降解塑料主要是由天然高分子(如淀粉、纤维素、甲壳质)或农副产品经微生物发酵或合成具有生物降解性的高分子制得,如热塑性淀粉塑料、脂肪族聚酯、聚乳酸、淀粉/聚乙烯醇等均属这类塑料。
Fully biodegradable plastics are mainly made from natural polymers (such as starch, cellulose, chitin) or agricultural by-products through microbial fermentation or synthesis of biodegradable polymers, such as thermoplastic starch plastics, aliphatic polyester, polylactic acid, starch / polyvinyl alcohol, etc.