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你知道可降解塑料你知道有哪些吗?

你知道可降解塑料你知道有哪些吗?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2021-04-14 15:48:54    

去年7月中旬,相关九部门发布一条新政策,与每个人的生活息息相关,也就是从今年的元旦起将禁用不可降解塑料袋,相关话题冲上微博热搜榜。我国环保问题越来越严峻,因而可降解塑料等环保材料受到更多的关注。那么,可降解塑料有哪些,你知道吗?目前有PLA、PBS、PCL、PHA、PBAT,继续往下看安瑞检测为您讲解。

In the middle of July last year, nine relevant departments issued a new policy, which is closely related to everyone's life. That is, from New Year's day this year, non degradable plastic bags will be banned, and related topics will rush to the microblog hot search list. The problem of environmental protection in China is becoming more and more serious, so degradable plastics and other environmental protection materials are paid more attention. So, what are the degradable plastics? Do you know? There are PLA, PBS, PCL, PHA and PBAT. Let's go on to Anrui testing to explain to you.
可降解塑料
Degradable plastics
PLA:聚乳酸。是一种新型的生物基及可生物降解材料,使用可再生的植物资源(如玉米)所提出的淀粉原料制成。淀粉原料经由糖化得到葡萄糖,再由葡萄糖及一定的菌种发酵制成高纯度的乳酸,再通过化学合成方法合成一定分子量的聚乳酸。
PLA: polylactic acid. It is a new type of bio based and biodegradable material, which is made of starch from renewable plant resources (such as corn). The raw material of starch is saccharified to obtain glucose, and then glucose and certain strains are fermented to produce high-purity lactic acid, and then polylactic acid with certain molecular weight is synthesized by chemical synthesis method.
其具有良好的生物可降解性,使用后能被自然界中微生物在特定条件下完全降解,生成二氧化碳和水,不污染环境,这对保护环境非常有利,是公认的环境友好材料。
It has good biodegradability. After use, it can be completely degraded by microorganisms in nature under specific conditions to generate carbon dioxide and water, which does not pollute the environment. It is very beneficial to protect the environment and is recognized as an environmentally friendly material.
PBS:聚丁二酸丁二醇酯。白色颗粒,由丁二酸和丁二醇经缩合聚合合成而得,树脂呈乳白色,无臭无味,易被自然界的多种微生物或动植物体内的酶分解、代谢,分解为二氧化碳和水,是典型的可完全生物降解聚合物材料。
PBS: polybutylene succinate. White particles are synthesized by condensation polymerization of succinic acid and butanediol. The resin is milky white, odorless and tasteless. It is easy to be decomposed and metabolized by a variety of natural microorganisms or enzymes in animals and plants to carbon dioxide and water. It is a typical biodegradable polymer material.
具有良好的生物相容性和生物可吸收性,耐热性能好,热变形温度和制品使用温度可以超过100℃。其合成原料来源既可以是石油资源,也可以通过生物资源发酵得到,PBS是生物降解塑料材料中的佼佼者。
It has good biocompatibility and bioabsorbability, good heat resistance, thermal deformation temperature and product use temperature can exceed 100 ℃. PBS is one of the best biodegradable plastic materials, which can be obtained from both petroleum resources and fermentation of biological resources.
可降解塑料
Degradable plastics
PCL:聚己内酯。具有良好的生物降解性、生物相容性和无毒性,而被广泛用作医用生物降解材料及药物控制释放体系,可运用于组织工程已经作为药物缓释系统。
PCL: polycaprolactone. Because of its good biodegradability, biocompatibility and non toxicity, it has been widely used as medical biodegradable materials and drug controlled release system, and can be used in tissue engineering as a drug release system.
PHA:聚羟基脂肪酸酯。是由很多细菌合成的一种胞内聚酯,在生物体内主要是作为碳源和能源的贮藏性物质而存在,它具有类似于合成塑料的物化特性及合成塑料所不具备的生物可降解性、生物相容性、光学活性、压电性、气体相隔性等许多优良性能。
PHA: polyhydroxy fatty acid ester. It is a kind of intracellular polyester synthesized by many bacteria. It mainly exists as a carbon source and energy storage material in the organism. It has many excellent properties, such as physical and chemical properties similar to synthetic plastics, biodegradability, biocompatibility, optical activity, piezoelectricity, gas separation and so on.
聚羟基脂肪酸酯在可生物降解的包装材料、组织工程材料、缓释材料、电学材料以及医疗材料方面有广阔的应用前景,但只有降低PHA的生产成本后才可能大规模应用。
Polyhydroxy fatty acid esters have broad application prospects in biodegradable packaging materials, tissue engineering materials, sustained-release materials, electrical materials and medical materials, but they can be applied on a large scale only after reducing the production cost of PHA.
PBAT:聚己二酸/对苯二甲酸丁二酯。PBAT属于热塑性生物降解塑料,是己二酸丁二醇酯和对苯二甲酸丁二醇酯的共聚物,兼具PBA和PBT的特性,既有较好的延展性和断裂伸长率,也有较好的耐热性和冲击性能;此外,还具有优良的生物降解性,是目前生物降解塑料研究中非常活跃和市场应用降解材料之一。
PBAT: polybutylene adipate / terephthalate. PBAT is a kind of thermoplastic biodegradable plastics. It is a copolymer of butylene adipate and butylene terephthalate. It has the characteristics of PBA and PBT. It not only has good ductility and elongation at break, but also has good heat resistance and impact performance. In addition, it also has excellent biodegradability. It is one of the most active and market application degradable materials in the research of biodegradable plastics.