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玉米淀粉颗粒的层状结构和微孔结构

玉米淀粉颗粒的层状结构和微孔结构

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2021-01-21 17:12:52    

用光学显微镜观察淀粉颗粒,大多情况下 可以看到层状结构,在它的有脐点。淀粉颗 粒是以脐点为由球晶按一定规则排列成放 射状而构成。而层状结构是由于淀粉颗粒内部 折射率之差,或是由于淀粉颗粒中淀粉分子的 装填方法、装填密度之差而产生的。
In most cases, the layered structure can be seen by observing starch granules with light microscope. There is an umbilical point in the center of starch granules. Starch granules are made up of spherulites arranged radially with umbilicus as the center. The layered structure is due to the difference of refractive index in starch granules, or the difference of filling method and density of starch molecules in starch granules.
到目前为止,人们对淀粉颗粒的结构己经 有了一个基本的认识。淀粉的很多性质可以从 淀粉颗粒的结构中得到解释。但是还有许多重 要的问题没有解决。如淀粉颗粒结构中直链淀 粉分子所处的位置和作用以及怎样解释这些双 螺旋结构形成整个淀粉颗粒等。
玉米淀粉颗粒
So far, people have a basic understanding of the structure of starch granules. Many properties of starch can be explained by the structure of starch granules. But there are still many important problems to be solved. For example, the position and function of amylose molecules in starch granule structure, and how to explain the double helix structure forming the whole starch granule.
在应用领域,由 于化学变性所用化学试剂品种及取代度的限 制,目前的化学变性技术的发展方向只有进行 定位化学改性。也即控制取代基在淀粉颗粒的 位置,控制取代基对直链淀粉及支链淀粉的相 对分布及取代基在单个分子上的定位。
In the field of application, due to the limitation of chemical reagents and degree of substitution, the development direction of chemical denaturation technology is only targeted chemical modification. That is to control the position of substituents in starch granules, the relative distribution of substituents to amylose and amylopectin, and the location of substituents on single molecule.
如上所 述,由于玉米淀粉颗粒的微孔性质,淀粉与化学试剂 接触表面积是相当大的,这也为定位取代提供 可能。但到目前还没有一种可以测定取代基位 置的仪器或方法,所以实现定位化学改性还有 很多工作有待于淀粉科学工作者共同努力。
As mentioned above, due to the microporous properties of corn starch granules, the contact surface area between starch and chemical reagents is quite large, which also provides the possibility of positional substitution. However, up to now, there is no instrument or method to determine the position of substituents, so there is still a lot of work to be done by starch scientists to achieve the chemical modification.