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玉米淀粉颗粒结构是如何的?

玉米淀粉颗粒结构是如何的?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2020-12-14 18:06:49    

玉米淀粉颗粒是自然界绿色植物贮存能源的主 要形式。 玉米淀粉颗粒不溶于水,但参与植物能量的 新陈代谢。除少数几种淀粉如粘玉米淀粉和糯 米淀粉外,淀粉颗粒是由直链淀粉和支链淀粉 两种高分子有秩序集合而成。

Corn starch granule is the main energy storage form of green plants in nature. Corn starch granules are insoluble in water, but participate in plant energy metabolism. Amylopectin and amylopectin are two kinds of amylopectin and amylopectin.
它是一种天然的 多晶体系,在淀粉的颗粒结构中包含着结晶区 和无定形区两大组成部分,由于支链淀粉分子 量较大,常常穿过淀粉颗粒的结晶区和无定形 区,故两部分的区分又不十分明显。淀粉颗粒 的结构十分复杂,尽管人们多年来进行了大量 的研究工作,但目前仍未彻底搞清其真正的结 构。
It is a kind of natural polycrystalline system. In the granule structure of starch, there are two parts: crystalline region and amorphous region. Because of the high molecular weight of amylopectin, it often passes through the crystalline and amorphous regions of starch granules, so the distinction between the two parts is not very obvious. The structure of starch granules is very complex. Although a lot of research work has been done for many years, the real structure of starch granules has not been fully understood.

近年来科学家通过荧光显微镜和透射电镜 等现代研究手段发现:玉米、小麦和高粱淀粉颗 粒存在着从表面深入到脐点的空洞[2]。这是对 淀粉颗粒结构研究的又一大进步。
In recent years, through modern research methods such as fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope, scientists have found that there are holes from the surface to the umbilicus of corn, wheat and sorghum starch granules [2]. This is another great progress in the study of starch granule structure.
淀粉颗粒结构的研究是淀粉科学基础研究 领域的前沿课题。对其结构的揭示有助于人们 了解淀粉在化学改性过程中的反应机制,进而 对淀粉分子的取代部位和取代均匀度进行有效 的控制,实现定位改性,更终达到变性淀粉质量 和附加值的提高,具有十分重要的理论意义和 实践价值。
The research of starch granule structure is a frontier subject in the field of starch science. The discovery of its structure will help people understand the reaction mechanism of starch in the process of chemical modification, and then effectively control the substitution position and substitution uniformity of starch molecules, so as to realize the localization modification, and finally improve the quality and added value of modified starch, which has very important theoretical significance and practical value.
淀粉颗粒的形状、大小
The shape and size of starch granules
淀粉颗粒由于品种的不同,其形状和大小 均各具特征。稻米淀粉颗粒是有菱角的不规则   形,颗粒较小,平均在5 pm,玉米淀粉大部分是 呈压碎的状的六角形,但它的角不象稻米淀粉 那样尖锐,而是稍带圆的,平均大小为15 pm。 小麦和大麦之类的淀粉是接近球状的椭球体, 颗粒有大的和小的两种,中等大小的很少。马铃 薯淀粉是近卵形的,颗粒较大,平均为33。
The shape and size of starch granules have their own characteristics due to different varieties. The grains of rice starch are irregular with water chestnut, and the average size is 5 pm. Most of corn starch is hexagonal in shape of crushed shape, but its angle is not as sharp as rice starch, but slightly round, with an average size of 15 pm. Starch, such as wheat and barley, is a nearly spherical ellipsoid. There are two kinds of granules, large and small, and few of medium size. Potato starch is nearly ovate with large granules, with an average of 33.