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影响降解材料的降解因素有哪些?

影响降解材料的降解因素有哪些?

来源网址:https://www.swjjkl.com/ 2021-04-07 15:02:45    

构成降解材料的原料决定了降解产物构成,淀粉基生物降解材料的降解成分是二氧化碳和水,有些降解材料制作过程中添加了不可降解材料,导致降解后残留的不可降解塑料阻碍土壤中水分的渗透,造成更大的土壤污染。

The raw materials of degradable materials determine the composition of degradation products. The degradation components of starch based biodegradable materials are carbon dioxide and water. Some degradable materials add non degradable materials in the production process, resulting in the residual non degradable plastics after degradation, hindering the permeability of water in the soil, causing greater soil pollution.
而影响全降解材料降解的因素有很多,主要从外部环境和材料的内部构成两方面来说:
There are many factors affecting the degradation of fully degradable materials, mainly from the external environment and the internal composition of materials
外部环境
external environment
外部环境包括气温、酸碱度、土壤堆肥、生物酶等特定条件,或是自然环境下,在实验中,升温是缩短实验周期的方法,而过低的温度则可能达不到理想的降解效果,因此,为降低气温及空气流动、生物酶等对降解材料的影响,全降解材料应储存在阴凉干燥的环境中。
The external environment includes temperature, pH, soil compost, biological enzyme and other specific conditions, or natural environment. In the experiment, heating up is the method to shorten the experimental period, while too low temperature may not achieve the ideal degradation effect. Therefore, in order to reduce the influence of temperature, air flow and biological enzyme on the degradation materials, the fully degraded materials should be stored in a cool and dry environment In the middle.
而构成降解材料的共聚物的降解、土壤堆肥等特定条件容易给共聚物的自我分解提供了适宜的酸性微环境,从而加快降解速度。
The degradation of copolymers and soil composting can provide suitable acidic microenvironment for the self decomposition of copolymers, thus accelerating the degradation rate.
内部环境
Internal environment
所谓内部环境,就是从全降解材料的本身构成来说,简单讲就是材料结构、聚合物的亲/疏水性、单体组成比例及分子量等对降解的影响度。降解速度快的材料结构,或是聚合物亲水性强,材料内部分子与水分子的接触面充分,聚合物能够发生水解的部位多,则降解速率快,反之则慢。
The so-called internal environment refers to the influence of material structure, hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity of polymer, monomer composition ratio and molecular weight on degradation. On the contrary, the degradation rate of the hydrophilic material is faster than that of the hydrophilic material.